Woven fabrics, knitted fabrics and other types of fabrics, after pre-treatment, dyeing or printing processes, due to the effects of humidity, heat, tension, etc., the original width and length of the fabric will be deformed. The purpose of finishing is mainly to solve the following problems.
◆ Make the fabric width neat and stable in size and shape. Among these sorts are: setting width, anti-shrinkage, anti-wrinkle and heat setting.
◆ Improve the hand feeling. Such finishing can be carried out by mechanical, chemical or a combination of both to improve the hand feeling of the fabric, such as soft, plump, smooth, stiff, light, thick and so on.
◆ Improve the appearance of the fabric. The appearance of the fabric, such as gloss, whiteness, drape, etc., is enhanced by physical or chemical means. This sort of finishing includes: calendering, whitening, and the like.
◆ Improve the performance of the fabric, or give the fabric a special function. Mechanical or chemical methods are used to produce fleece on the surface of the fabric to enhance warmth, such as fluffing, shearing, and wool. The use of certain chemicals makes the fabric have special functions such as water repellency, oil repellency, hygiene, and UV resistance. Antistatic, anti-pilling and pilling of chemical fiber fabrics.
The requirements for fabric finishing vary not only by the type of fiber that makes up the fabric, but also because of the type of fabric and the specific use of the fabric.
According to the above requirements, the fabric finishing process can be divided into two categories, namely mechanical finishing and chemical finishing. The former usually uses wet, heat, force (tension, pressure) and mechanical action to complete the processing method; the latter uses chemical agents to chemically react with the fibers to change the physicochemical properties of the fabric. However, there is no clear boundary between the two. For example, soft finishing can be done by general mechanical methods, or by adding a softener method, but most of them are carried out simultaneously by two methods, such as durable electro-optic finishing, so that the fabric is first impregnated with resin. The finishing agent is dried and then calendered and baked by an electro-optical machine.
The content of fabric finishing is very extensive, and new content is constantly being added with the development of science and technology. At present, the finishing of fabrics has evolved from the purely intrinsic properties of fibers and the temporary finishing effects to the use of new finishing agents and new equipment to give fabrics a better and lasting effect. After the textiles are finished, they can not only improve the product quality, but also increase the added value of the products.
Therefore, the international frontier level of post-finishing is not simply to study the level of its finishing technology, but should be based on the level reached by the product. At the same time, in order to implement environmental protection regulations, the finished products must comply with environmental regulations and implement clean production.